Introduction




INTRODUCTION
Shosei Otani
(Head Priest, Reikizan Hontokuji)

Yoshiko Ishikawa's Floral Mandala The Paintings on the Latticed Ceiling over the Raised Floor of Hontokuji's Main Reception Hall
Yoshiaki Inui
(Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University; Art Critic)

The Flowers of the World in a Buddhist Temple Paintings by Madam Ishikawa, The Artist
M.Giuseppina Cerulli Irelli
(Director of the Italian Institute of Culture, Tokyo)

Flowers of the Japanese Spirit
Seiji Tsutsumi
(Chairman, Saison Corporation)



INTRODUCTION

Shosei Otani
(Head Priest, Reikizan Hontokuji)


We are most fortunate to receive as a donation from Mrs. Yoshiko Ishikawa, new ceiling paintings for the " jodan no ma " in the main reception hall of Hontokuji, painted by Mrs. Ishikawa herself.
Mrs. Ishikawa is of course well known in the contemporary art world as a painter, but the donation of her work to Hontokuji came about as a result of historical ties to this temple.
Mrs. Ishikawa's father, Mr. Morinosuke Kajima, was born into the Nagatomi family in Ibogawacho, Ibo-gun, Hyogo Prefecture. The Nagatomis are an old renowned family, who served as community leaders in the region in the Edo period. The family residence has been designated by the Government as an important cultural asset and preserved. Since the Edo period, the family has had close ties with this temple, as a supporter. Hontokuji, was founded by Rennyo Shonin, the eighth head abbot of Honganji Temple. At that time, Hontokuji served as the local headquarters of the head temple Honganji, and was the center for temples and believers of the Shinsyu sect in the Bansyu region (now Hyogo prefecture) and a focal point for religious faith. Because of this history, Hontokuji generally did not have direct followers, but for generations the Nagatomi family supported the temple as one of the very few direct adherents (jikimonto) of the temple. Because of these ties, Mr. Kajima himself once served as the chief representative of the followers of Hontokuji and dedicated himself to protecting the temple.
In 1991, when Mrs. Ishikawa took part in services at this temple on the occasion of the 17th anniversary of her father's death, I discussed with her various matters, such as the difficulties of restoring and maintaining the temple, given the vicissitudes of the world and institutional reforms that have been introduced since the Meiji Reformation. One specific problem I brought up was the heavy damage suffered by the paintings on the latticed ceiling of the " jodan no ma " in the main reception hall. Knowing her close ties to the temple, I asked her if she would be so kind as to personally take up the paint brush on our behalf.
Since then five years have elapsed, during which time Mrs. Ishikawa's devotion and untiring efforts have been truly impressive. A latticed ceiling is a special and rather difficult location for a painting, and much thought went into choosing the theme, as well as the materials such as the paint. The result is a magnificent work beyond all expectations. The painter abundantly utilized the new ideas, techniques and materials of the modern Heisei era, combined them with her artistic flair and sincere personality and created a work of art. The new ceiling paintings for the main reception hall will enhance the beauty and solemnity of an ancient structure that is already a cultural treasure, to the benefit of future generations.
Moreover, she has had the original paintings, which were no longer restorable, removed and carefully stored in the temple, so as to prevent further damage.
This year, in which we receive her work, also happens to be the centennial of the birth of her father, Mr. Kajima, and that too is a significant tie.
A temple is essentially an institution that is built upon and supported by the goodwill and contributions of people with faith and ties to that institution. Mrs. Ishikawa's donation is particularly precious, being pure of spirit. I am delighted that she was able to express her devotion to her father and memorialize him in this fine way. As the head priest of Hontokuji, I thank Mrs. Ishikawa from the bottom of my heart for adding so much to the grandeur of this temple.





Yoshiko Ishikawa's Floral Mandala

The Paintings on the Latticed Ceiling over the Raised Floor
of
Hontokuji's Main Reception Hall

Yoshiaki Inui
(Professor Emeritus, Kyoto University; Art Critic)


Throughout an illustrious career as a painter spanning more than thirty years, Yoshiko Ishikawa has untiringly and consistently dedicated herself to the painting of flowers. Rarely does one encounter an artist who has concentrated on the sole subject of flowers with such intensity; nor have many painters covered the vast scope and diversity of this subject so assiduously. Moreover, Ishikawa does not merely portray the exterior forms of her chosen subjects. Although she may begin with a very detailed observation of a flower's outward appearance, she goes on to ferret out relentlessly all the varied charms possessed by a flower; its unique characteristics, delicate nuances and fragrant aromas. In her recent works, in particular, by way of gentle, flowing brush strokes, and a dynamic utilization of space, she has succeeded in recreating the inner vitality of a flower with its enchanting, almost mystical, beauty.
For several years now, Ishikawa has been devoting her energies to a project commissioned by the Hontokuji Temple at Kameyama, Himeji, in Hyogo Prefecture, to create new paintings for the latticed ceiling over the raised floor of the temple's main reception hall. Hontokuji was founded by the venerated Buddhist priest Rennyo Shonin and has a distinguished five hundred year history as one of the most celebrated temples of the Honganji branch of the Jodo Shinshu Buddhist sect. The temple is comprised of the main building and many other large edifices. The main reception hall was built in the middle of the Edo period and is renowned for its luxurious atmosphere, attributable in no small part to the richly colored and gold screen and wall paintings that adorn its two raised-floor areas.
The latticed ceiling over the lower of the two raised-floors consists of a lattice of black lacquered frames, with five rows of frames one way and seventeen rows the other way, for a total of 85 frames. Until recently, every frame contained a stylized painting of a flower, dragon, crane etc., each one with a different design. These works were recently discovered to have the date March 9, 6th year of Kyoho (1721) signed on the back, confirming their historic origins. Since the paint was peeling off in many places, these paintings have been dismantled and put in protective storage, together with the screen and wall paintings which were also in disrepair.
Yoshiko Ishikawa's father, the late Mr. Morinosuke Kajima, was born into the Nagatomi family of Harima (Hyogo Prefecture) , who were closely associated with Hontokuji since the Edo period. In fact, Mr.  Kajima served as the chief parishioner of the temple for many years. Through this connection, Ishikawa was offered the commission to create Heisei era paintings to replace the Kyoho era works removed from the latticed ceiling.
The project was planned as part of a comprehensive renovation of Hontokuji; yet Ishikawa no doubt accepted this difficult assignment and put her heart and soul into it in part as a memorial to her father. After some five years of hard work, the new ceiling paintings have finally been finished.
I recently had the opportunity to inspect these paintings at close range, before they were mounted on the ceiling. Ishikawa has maintained the structure of the ancient latticed ceiling with its 85 panels. Each panel is made of Japanese cedar, measuring about 55 centimeters square, and is covered by an oil painting. All the paintings are, of course, of flowers. The panel at the center of the latticed ceiling displays a large white lotus blossom against a gold background, while the eight panels arrayed around it display a variety of lotus blossoms in a round frame set against a gold background. The several panels at each of the four corners of the ceiling reveal freely arranged sprigs of dazzling cherry blossoms painted with dynamic and bold strokes. Each of the remaining 54 cedar boards is covered in gold leaf and inside each circular window at the center, a different flower is painted.
These flowers cover a wide variety. They include such traditional Japanese blossoms as chrysanthemum, camellia, morning glory, azalea rhododendron and Japanese wistaria, as well as some of Western origin such as poinsettia, anemone, pansy, moth orchid and cyclamen. Renderings of gorgeous blossoms such as rose, peony, sunflower, queen of the night and peach blossoms are set off by delicate and quieter blooms such as gentian, fringed pink, narcissus, Chinese bellflower, purple scabious, fringed orchis and cornflower. The entire composition erupts with such a profusion of beauty that my first impression was of being engulfed in a wave of multicolored, dancing blossoms.
However, closer examination revealed that Ishikawa has neglected none of the details of the lotus blossoms at the center, or of the other 54 varieties of flowers, each of which is depicted realistically and with painstaking care. Meticulous observation and numerous sketches and studies must have preceded each oil painting. Otherwise, it is inconceivable that such remarkable portrayals of the individual charms and characteristics of each flower could have been achieved so successfully.
Besides being realistically portrayed, the flowers are so ingeniously bent and arranged as to fit into the round windows in the gold backgrounds. In other words, the flowers have become decorative, as designs in identically sized circles. Yet this decorative composition of circles does not in the least detract from the realistic beauty of each flower. On the contrary, the pattern of circles serves to underline the diversity and color of the flowers all the more vividly. Moreover, this latticed ceiling decorated with realistic yet ornamental flowers is complemented by cherry blossoms in the four corners. These blossoms are full of vivacious energy and are representative of Ishikawa's artistic style. They convey a sense of movement and save the whole composition from lapsing into a mere ornamental pattern.
Thus, this series of latticed ceiling paintings are indeed unique in combining realism with decorativeness. Nonetheless, in my view, the outstanding merit of this work lies in its spiritual dignity. Each flower, whether blooming gloriously or standing quietly alone in a field, radiates with a solemn yet graceful dignity.
Therefore, the new paintings for the latticed ceiling of Hontokuji can be said to be the culmination of Yoshiko Ishikawa's lifelong pursuit of floral beauty. As such, the paintings can be described as being a floral " mandala " (Buddhist divine chart) resplendent with the richness of floral vitality. I wish to congratulate Ishikawa with all my heart for completing a monumental work that succeeds in obtaining that rare combination of artistic sensitivity and pure spirituality.




Italian Version

The Flowers of the World in a Buddhist Temple

― Paintings by Madam Ishikawa, The Artist ―

M.Giuseppina Cerulli Irelli
(Director of the Italian Institute of Culture, Tokyo)


I am not a scholar of Buddhist philosophy and art, nor am I a believer of the Buddhist creed, being a Catholic myself.
Nevertheless, I have always been impressed by one aspect of Buddhist spirituality with which I have become familiar in Japan; that is the readiness to accept the universal beauty of this world.
Since I am a researcher of ancient Roman art, and a member of the Roman Catholic Church as well, I am familiar with the Occidental sense of mission to seek out and preserve the whole of the people of this earth.
This sense of mission saliently appears ancient fine-arts objects (from the altar of peace of Augustus to the grandiose mosaic with Cristus docents) and in various modern expressions (such as in the work of the present Pope, John Paul II). There is no ambiguity, nothing is left to the imagination in order to comprehend its meaning.
Much different, at least to the casual observer, is the manner of expression in Japanese Buddhism. It is discreet, essential, highly poetic, and somewhat timid.
Recently I had the opportunity of viewing the works of the artist, Madam Ishikawa, upon her kind invitation. Now I would like to describe the beauty of her paintings.
A prominent lady artist, (she held a solo exhibition in the U.S.A. on the theme of Sakura - cherry blossoms - three years ago, and beautiful catalogues in English were published.), she has recently made a "pietas" deed by dedicating her decorative-paintings to the Kameyama Hontokuji Temple of the Jodo Shinshu sect in Himeji (Hyogo Prefecture) where her ancestors worshipped.
Her works are delicate ceiling paintings which are to be dedicated to the Temple. Such decorative paintings, rarely preserved to the present day, are art treasures that many religious edifices used to be proud of in the old days both in the Occident and in the Orient. The revival of this tradition is splendid and significant. On the other hand, it must be pointed out that the temporary interruption of the tradition, although only partly, (caused by damage through the years, and by fires), made Madam Ishikawa's work more difficult.
The artist overcame this difficulty not only with grace but also with sagacity by incorporating partially new elements: the expression of the unity of the world through the variety and richness of flowers.
The flowers for decorating the ceiling of the Kameyama Hontokuji Temple were chosen not only from the Japanese flora. Around the grand lotus blossom in the center are placed exotic flowers such as can be found in modern day Tokyo florists. Pansies, orchids, gentians, as well as typical Japanese flowers like the Japanese wistaria are mixed together and surrounded with large trees with full-blown cherry blossoms that extend from the four corners.
Needless to say, the artist was inspired by experiences gained through her own travels and by her research of foreign works of art, not from the show windows of flower shops.
Truly, Madam Ishikawa's paintings recreate for me the great harmony of the universe through the medium of a delicate symphony of color.




Flowers of the Japanese Spirit

Seiji Tsutsumi
(Chairman, Saison Corporation)


Hideo Kobayashi (1902-1983) has said that there is no such thing as the "beauty of flowers", there are only "beautiful flowers". Each artist discovers by his/her own intuitive experience the "beauty of flowers" and re-awards that beauty to the flowers one by one. This process can either happen within the artists mind in a single momentary flash, or it can crystallize slowly over a considerable period of time.
Yoshiko Ishikawa has created numerous works depicting flowers and I believe that they are the products of both intuition and timely crystallization. The lines, through their movement naturally convey a sense of vitality and the deep colors spread into unimaginable transformations. Movement filled lines and deep colors penetrate the viewers heart, blending and thereby creating a magical and extremely real world of flowers.
The one-woman exhibition of Ishikawa's works entitled " sakura " held at the National Museum of Women's Art in Washington, D.C. presumably reveals for many people the " yamato-gokoro " (Japanese spirit) in these works.
Professor Alik Cavaliere, former president of the Milan Academy of Arts, has indicated that these works depict a harmoniously unified world of observed object and viewing subject. He traces her fusion of eastern and western sensibilities in the works to the years this artist spent as a child in Europe, and I have found in these same works the sense of revived " yamato-gokoro ". Ishikawa's work characteristically allow the evocation of these disparate viewpoints.
The " yamato-gokoro ", is evoked prior to its fragmentation into the " yamato-damashii " (Japanese soul) and the " monono-aware " (aesthetic sense). Doubtlessly, I can recognize the " yamato-gokoro " in her work. The strength in the gentle breeze, and the flower blossoming grace in the strength.
After the creation of many of these works, Ishikawa painted the ceiling paintings for the " ohiroma " (the main reception hall) of the famous temple, Kameyama Hontokuji. When she received this request from her father's family temple, Kameyama Hontokuji, surely she was inspired by the religious paintings adorning the ceilings of Europe's many cathedrals. There devote worshippers had created gloriously mystical worlds and joyously dancing angels.
The revered priest, Rennyo shonin (1415-1499) established this venerable temple, and its precincts house numerous Important Cultural Assets, such as the Hondo, Rennyodo (Chusodo), and Kyodo. Paintings adorn the structures, such as the " fusuma " - (wall panel) paintings of the inner chambers of the " ohiroma " depicting scenes of imperial audiences in ancient China. Ishikawa's work covers the entirety of the heavily damaged ceiling paintings in the " ohiroma ", a total of eighty five panels.
As I have seen the artist's exhibited works in Tokyo earlier, I had the opportunity to recognize the hearty desire to create her own artistic world.
Cherry blossoms frame the four corners of the five vertical columns by seventeen rows of paintings. This enables the viewer to imagine a shrine embedded in a forest of surrounding flowers. The decoration setting off the ceiling makes it appear as if the flat ceiling invites the viewer into a three dimensionally sensed, far off heaven. Alongside these cherry blossoms, wild pinks, lilies, peonies, irises, queen of the night, cockscomb, crinum, hibiscus and calla lilies, a whole spectrum of different flowers are depicted within circles surrounded by gold. These circles of flowers assemble to compose a small cosmos flower, and each of the nine paintings then form a large circular compositional whole. In the center of the whole composition there is a flower which can only be called heavenly flower.
In Buddhism, the birth of Buddha is celebrated with a rite known as the flower festival, " hana matsuri ", which is celebrated in Japan on the 8th of April, and is often called the washing the Buddha festival (kanbutsu-e) or the nativity festival (kotan-e). In South Asia this rite is known as the Vesak festival. The Flower Hall, or " Hana-mido ", is the Buddhist hall used for the worship of the birth of Buddha and the name for this building comes from the multitude of colorful flowers that adorn it. The lotus is one of these flowers, and individual forms of this species carry a variety of symbolism, such as the mandarage whose strongly scented flowers bloom in heaven and the pundarika, the white lotus which symbolizes the chanting pilgrims who descend to the depths of hell. In this sense, the arrangement of flowers on these eighty five panels can be seen as a representation of the depths of her devotion and reverence for her father, resembling the creation of a flower mandala.
Even though she was blessed by her environment, I can't help but meditate: what brought the artist to create such a beautiful world? The work gives glimpses of death and hell behind its beauty, its gentleness and its unyielding strength. It resonates with the spiritual state of her mind, capable of depicting this world of graceful flowers. As Hideo Kobayashi would express: here we find a work that dose not depict the beauty of flowers, it conveys rather the individuality, the creativity of the artist depicting the flowers which decorate the heavens in all their strength, in all their gentleness.



All rights reserved, Copyright (c) 1995-1996 KAJIMA CORPORATION