News & Notes
Vol. 35
Winter 2005
Kajima around the World

From Ethiopia
Ethiopia's First Extradosed Bridge to Span the Blue Nile Gorge

Ethiopia is an agricultural power that supports a population of 60 million, the second highest in Africa. Since 1999, Kajima has handled construction in a project to rehabilitate the National A3 Addis Ababa-Goha Tsion Trunk Road (a Japanese grant aid project), a critical land transportation route. Kajima recently obtained an order for Phase III of the project, involving road rehabilitation work between the towns of Goha Tsion and Dejen and construction of the Abbay Bridge.
Ethiopia's First Extradosed Bridge to Span the Blue Nile Gorge

The road rehabilitation work is for a stretch of road that links Goha Tsion and Dejen, two towns situated about 2,500 meters (8,200 feet) above sea level and separated by the Nile River. The new bridge will be constructed 1,060 meters (3,480 feet) above sea level over the Blue Nile Gorge. Kajima's difficult task is to conduct repair work on the mountain road in precipitous terrain without disrupting traffic during the construction period.

The new bridge will be constructed upstream from the current Abbay Bridge (built in 1948). Ethiopia's first extradosed prestressed concrete cable-stayed bridge will have a center span of 145 meters (476 feet) and total length of 303 meters (995 feet). The bridge, which will accommodate heavy vehicles with axle loads of 12 tons and total weight of 60 tons, is attracting the attention of the Ethiopian Association of Civil Engineers and the local construction industry.

Construction is scheduled for completion in December 2008. The rehabilitated road and new bridge are expected to ensure access to Ethiopia's largest grain and livestock belt and activate the distribution of agricultural produce.
Ethiopia's First Extradosed Bridge to Span the Blue Nile Gorge
From the United States
Understanding the Entitlement Process in California

With distribution centers needed to handle the growing flow of products from China and other Asian countries, California presents a golden opportunity for industrial developers. But to capitalize on the demand for space, developers must acquire expertise to navigate the complex and sometimes difficult process known as entitlement.

Such expertise has enabled Kajima's North American subsidiary, Industrial Developments International, Inc. (IDI) to develop projects in California for such major clients as Wal-Mart, UPS Supply Chain Solutions and General Electric. "Our strategy was to become the most reputable entity in California for entitlements," said Alan Sharp, vice president and regional development officer in the Los Angeles region for IDI. "As a result, we've taken on challenges some of our competitors chose not to pursue."
IDI built this 765,456-square-foot (71,100-square-meter) distribution center in Riverside County, California, now occupied by UPS Supply Chain Solutions.
IDI built this 765,456-square-foot (71,100-square-meter) distribution center in Riverside County, California, now occupied by UPS Supply Chain Solutions.
Receiving an entitlement gives a developer the legal right to build a specific project on a particular tract of land. In California's entitlement process, a developer must complete either a Mitigated Negative Declaration or an Environmental Impact Report (EIR). An EIR addresses environmental issues such as air pollution and groundwater contamination, and the process can take two or three years due to the involvement of multiple governmental agencies.

In mitigating project areas, IDI works closely with agencies such as the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the California Department of Fish and Game to address concerns of the local community by providing improvements such as greenspace and berms that reduce truck noise.

Of course, residents and environmentalists often want land to remain undeveloped or in a more natural state, as was the case with the dairy farm where IDI built a 765,456-square-foot (71,100-square-meter) distribution center in Riverside County, California. However, studies show that a properly developed industrial project actually results in less pollution to the local environment than a dairy farm, which contaminates groundwater with nitrates and releases ammonia into the air.

"The barriers to entry for development are sometimes overwhelming and the review process for projects is time-consuming.However, we realize these are necessary steps to protect the environment and ensure sustainable development in California," said Sharp.
From Japan
Base-Isolated,Multi-Story Fabs Protect against Earthquake Damage

In recent years, expansion of production line space has been required at plants that fabricate liquid crystal panels, semiconductors, and other electronic devices to accommodate the production of large liquid crystal panels. In addition to the space requirement, another critical management issue for manufacturers is avoidance of direct damage to these fabrication plants, which require enormous facilities investment, and of the risk of loss due to the shutdown of production lines when earthquakes strike. To satisfy the need to protect these plants from earthquake damage, Kajima developed base-isolated, multi-story fab buildings.

Base-isolated, multi-story fab buildings utilize a unique catenary arch construction method that ensures high rigidity using fewer steel frames than construction involving ordinary truss beams to realize multi-story clean rooms with large spans more than 40 meters (130 feet) in length. Use of the base isolation system that combines laminated rubber cushions and sliding bearings simultaneously achieves base isolation and micro-vibration prevention.

At these plants, multi-story clean rooms are constructed at the center of the fab building and surrounded by utility areas, office areas, and other functional areas. Because related facilities are concentrated inside a single base-isolated building, when a major earthquake occurs, workers, facilities and equipment are protected and damage is minimized.

The increase in construction costs this construction method entails is estimated at a mere 1% of the total initial investment in an electronic devices fab. Construction periods are about the same as for ordinary buildings.
Catenary arch construction, which takes advantage of the catenary curves used in the construction of bridges, is a construction method patented by Kajima.
Catenary arch construction, which takes advantage of the catenary curves used in the construction of bridges, is a construction method patented by Kajima.
A New Musical Culture Begins in Karuizawa: Karuizawa Ohga Hall

Karuizawa Ohga Hall, a splendid new music hall, recently opened in Karuizawa, a city nestled in the mountains of Nagano Prefecture that is one of Japan's most popular summer resorts. Mr. Norio Ohga, Honorary Chairman of Sony Corporation and a classically trained musician and conductor, donated the hall to Karuizawa. The opening of the first music hall in Karuizawa that can accommodate a full orchestra has prompted a procession of numerous famous musicians keen to give concerts in the new facility. The concert hall is situated in a corner of Yagasaki Park, a short walk from Karuizawa Station. The facility blends harmoniously with the surrounding waterfront and lawn to create a pleasant, relaxing atmosphere.

To realize Mr. Ohga's acoustic ideal, the internal structure of the hall is a pentagonal surround space with no parallel walls. The stage is surrounded by 660 seats and standing room space for 140, an intimate layout that creates a sense of oneness between performers and audience. The hall was designed to enable the musicians and audience to enjoy music while encountering the natural environment of Karuizawa. Locally grown larch trees were used for interior and exterior wall surfaces, skylights flood the interior with the natural highland light, the foyer looks out on the waterfront, and the performers' lounge commands a view of the surrounding mountains.
Karuizawa Ohga HallKaruizawa Ohga Hall
Vol. 35
Winter 2005
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